A half day workshop for sharing knowledge and experiences of Godawari VDC with Lubhu VDC people was organized at Godawari Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Committee (GDWSSC) office premises, Godawari VDC on 8th April, 2011. The logic behind organizing this programme is to share the experiences and achievements in terms of water management in Godawari with Lubhu VDC people who have been making efforts to improve its water management techniques. The programme brought the two VDCs, Godawari and Lubhu into a common ground where dual objectives were enthusiastically achieved, sharing of experiences and demonstration site visit for Lubhu VDC, the peri-urban site selected for the pilot intervention.
A total of 18 people from Lubhu and Godawari VDC have participated in the programme. The executive committee members from the GWDSSC shared valuable experiences and understandings with the participants from Lubhu. The key personnel from Godawari were president- Mr. Shyam Krishna Silwal, ex-president- Mr. Purushotam Silwal and Vice-president Mr. Ram Chandra Acharya of GDWSSC. The participation from Lubhu VDC involved the members from the recently formed VDC Water Resource Committee which comprised of different stakeholders actively involved in the management of water in Lubhu.
Godawari VDC is a well known for its panoramic views and water resources. The water management in VDC has been very impressive however unlike expected by outsiders about VDC, to have unlimited water resources, the situation was drastically different. The VDC itself is rich in water but the available sources have been tapped by several neighboring VDCs including Harisidhi, Bisankhu Narayan and Thaiba, thereby leaving limited extractable water sources for the use of Godawari people.
Looking back to the history of water management in Godawari, water distribution was initiated by Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC) during late 1970s where it provided 27 public taps covering entire VDC. With gradually increasing in settlements, it further increased water demand which finally led the VDC people to look for sustainable water management scheme. The VDC having its own water source was an advantage while the challenge was initiating the full fledged result oriented water management scheme. Having already introduced the provision of free water access through the public taps installed by government organization, systematizing and bringing under the rule was not easy. Regarding this, one major issue that the Godawari team reiterated was the need of depoliticizing the developmental works and water, being a basic human right, equitable access to it is a must.
Under the leadership of the then President of GDWSSC- Mr. Puruswotam Silwal, GDWSSC came into formation in 1993/1994 A.D. The new scheme came up with innovative ideas of establishing committee as an independent and self sustained institution. This drinking water committee has been gradually cutting existing public taps down from 27 to 21 and now 8 being in operation. The intended beneficiaries of the public taps are poor, marginalized and economically deprived ethnic groups. Each of these is handed over to groups, each constituting of 7 households with responsibility of total monitoring and maintenance of the tap.
Experience Propagating Consumers Pay Concept
Mr. Ram Chandra Acharya quoted, "Free access to water leads the free riding problem and public taps leads to tragedy of commons, here being water. Water consumption in one public tap is equivalent to 10 private taps so avoiding the wastage of water and sustainable water management for long term well being of the people needs to follow consumers pay principle where of course economic capacity has to be considered for meeting the needs of diverse population".
Having water sources in the VDC itself, the need was arranging financial support and building technical capacity. This team believed, for the long term sustenance and institutionalization, local investment is pivotal and therefore they avoided involvement of donors, be it governmental support or any non-governmental funding agency. In the process of arranging financial support through the local residents and the private organizations, they first started with an extensive household survey which identified the social and economic composition within VDC and also estimated the water demand and available yield within the VDC. The residents within the VDC were then categorized into different economic hierarchy and based on their capacity, different households and institutions were charged differently which ranged from minimum charge to over lakhs.
They prepared local technical human resources by arranging training program to the interested local people so that they can look after the schemes’ technical problems. The water reservoir and distribution tanks including the laying of pipe has been under the scientific supervision integrating the geological and engineering guidelines to avoid any procedural errors and incidental havoc. The consistency in monitoring has been maintained where, this water resource committee analyses and make an assay of the equipments and delivers the parts to be maintained so as to ensure the standards. Considering the likely problem of water obstruction in entire region due to problem in one of the reservoirs common in conventional water distribution models, VDC has opted for multiple reservoirs constructed at different areas of the VDC for isolating problem such that under the cases of unavoidable problem in one will still continue the other sectors to perform thereby delivering water services in the region.Sharing the experiences by Mr. Ram Chandra Acharya, Key person from GDWSSC"The efficient water management should look not at short term gains but it should be far sighted and strive for long term benefits. Systematizing the water management might entail making unpalatable decisions in the short term but in the long term benefits it would be good for the VDC and the people. The set rules and regulation should be strengthened with the local awareness and motivation campaigns and maintaining discipline is obligatory. To avoid any distortions in the payment of tariff, strict penalty system of as much as 50% fine should be kept…
Currently this committee has been serving around 1000 private taps where regular meter reading is conducted and the consumed water is charged with graded water tariff system at the monthly rate of minimum NPR. 10 for 10,000 litres, NPR.25 for 20,000 litres and increasing with the increased water consumption thereby having a control mechanism for the water misuse.
Meanwhile, the facilitators also shared how they formed the key functionaries. The nine wards of the VDC were divided into 47 bastis (residences), and elected one representative from each basti with six years of working period while the executive committee, selected from 47 representatives, was constituted keeping 2 years of validity period. This mechanism of selecting key functionaries also has been beneficial in identifying problems and solutions of the problems and at the basti level.
The team emphasized water management is not one time process and therefore regular monitoring is essential for understanding the changing context of demand and supply scenario. Ensuring long term sustainability needs integrate environmental management and forest conservation to conserve the water sources. The Godawari people are hopeful on having water security for coming five decades but have envisioned the need of harvesting rain water to meet the growing demand.
The Godawari team suggested Lubhu VDC to consider certain points in mind while planning and implementing drinking water management project:
- Drinking water is fundamental right of the people,
- Water should not be provided in free of cost in order to best utilize the limited resource,
- Need of rain water harvesting,
- Avoid politics in social developmental works,
- Forest Conservation for water source conservation,
- Do not depend upon donor agencies for constructing their water supply system,
- Proper management of available resources rather than searching of new sources.
The Godawari team appreciated the shared learning dialogue program and further shared their future plan to visit Palpa in Western Nepal for similar kind of program where they are planning to observe the water management in the hilly terrain.
The representatives from Lubhu have been highly impressed from the existing water management practice in Godawari. The major contrast in water management initiatives taking place in these two VDCs was unanimously noted by Lubhu residents as an encouragement to step forward to solving problems.Sharing by Mr. Ram Gopal Singh, a participant from Lubhu
"In Godawari despite having own water resource, Godawari residents have been paying tariff for water services while in our case (Lubhu), we are depending on external water sources via public taps but have no system of charging tariff thereby causing excessive wastage of water. We have been looking for external funding agencies for solving our problem which after knowing the case in Godawari, we feel needs to be considered again. This visit has been a guide to understand inter connected matters that essentially need to be considered to overcome the possible obstacles that come across. "
On critically analyzing own strengths and weaknesses, the Lubhu team concluded that the homogenous traditional Newari Community and political unity in terms of water management are advantages for them whereas absence of water source in the VDC itself and need of exploring reliable water source is the major challenge. With years long history of free access to water from Chapakharka source and Dovan Khola, getting local peoples’ approval for paid water services is also not less challenging.
Currently, the Lubhu VDC people are just having public taps. This Shared Learning Dialogue Programme clicked their mind on the wastage of available water resources via public taps and started rethinking on supplying drinking water via private taps. Regarding replacing public taps and promoting private taps, based on own experiences, Godawari team suggested to go on a gradual steps which will be congenial for different economic groups. After getting to know, the daily water consumption in the entire Godawari VDC was around 5 lakhs litres, Lubhu participants expressed their doubts whether their problem was water availability or unmanaged water distribution system. In this respect, the facilitators from Godawari suggested to conduct a detail social survey for identifying the demand and supply and also stratifying the social and economic composition for arranging the cost needed for the construction of water infrastructures from VDC itself.
There has been growing interest of different water stakeholders on the concept of generating fund from the local consumers itself and charging for the provided water services. They have shown interest in arranging a meeting on this matter and sharing the learning from Godawari VDC with the local people for undertaking acceptable action as soon as possible. However with multitude of challenges to overcome, Lubhu VDC people need consistent perseverance and commitment for solving their problems.